Contracts don’t have to be in Writing to make them Binding

Contracts don’t have to be in Writing to make them Binding

Contracts don’t have to be in Writing to make them Binding

Not all contracts are in writing, and they don’t have to be

A contract, in its most basic form, is an agreement between parties that legally binds them. Even without a handshake to seal it.

People bind themselves to contracts every day, sometimes without even realising it, and as a result also acquire certain legal rights and responsibilities.

It is commonly thought that a contract can’t be binding unless it is put in writing. While this is true in some cases, generally speaking – unwritten contracts ARE enforceable.

There are only a very small number of contracts that have to be in writing – like the sale of land.

You can form a contract through an exchange of emails or private messages, through a telephone call or a combination of those activities. It is helpful to think of a contract as a bargain and when a dispute arises, the law aims to determine whether or not the bargain made can be enforced.

So whether a bargain is based on a verbal agreement, written agreement or a combination of the two, remember that actions can speak louder than words. However, its the written words you will want to rely on if something goes wrong.

It is always wise to write down the details of an agreement, especially if large sums of money are involved and where there are no reliable witnesses or other evidence of the details. I’ve seen business partners waste all of their profits in legal disputes because they didn’t put their agreement in writing 10 years earlier while they were still friends. The beauty of having something in writing is for reference, when people have forgotten the details, or remember different things.


Making a Contract

A contract must have three identifiable features, whether it is written, verbal or partly verbal and partly in writing:

  1. Agreement (offer and acceptance)
  2. Intention
  3. Consideration

A contract is formed when there is an agreement between the parties to undertake certain obligations.


The point at which negotiations have been concluded and the agreement is reached is not always easily worked out, but there must have been a clear indication (offer) by one party of a willingness to be bound on certain terms and an unqualified acceptance of that offer.

‘Unqualified’ means that it shouldn’t be subject to conditions. Anything subject to conditions is not acceptance, it is further negotiation. This is where counter-offers and acceptance can become confused.

If you offer to sell 1800 widgets at $40 each, with a discount of 30% for volume, and the buyer says ‘okay, I’ll take 600 at the discounted price‘, then the buyer has made a counter-offer, not accepted your original offer. You may not agree to that level of discount at the reduced volume.

There are legal cases debating the point at which agreements are eventually reached, and whether or not an agreement was even made.


For there to be a legally enforceable contract the parties must have intended to enter into a legally binding agreement.

Intention is seldom something you say out loud, but is usually inferred from the circumstances surrounding the agreement.

This is where the bet in the pub becomes the primary example. Someone making an off-hand bet is unlikely to be serious.

Another good example is where someone promises something you know they simply can’t deliver – for example ‘I’ll give you a million bucks if you …‘ when you know the person simply doesn’t have that money to spare.


Before there can be a contract there must be an agreement to exchange. Each party must provide something in return for what the other is providing. The item or action exchanged is called the consideration.

It does not matter if the consideration given by each side is of unequal value. The law requires only that something is given by each party.

So consideration can be money, or actions, or property. Swapping items (like sports uniforms at international sporting events) is treated no differently than money being exchanged for an item.

Donations are not the same thing. Only one party has the benefit of a donation, so a pledge to donate is usually unenforceable. However, where something is offered in exchange for a donation – like a red nose, or a yellow daffodil – then that may be sufficient consideration to create a binding contract.

Nominal consideration is usually enough. So when a seller says you need to pay a substantial deposit to secure the deal, their actions may be capable of being considered misleading. There are many cases where $1, or similar small amount have been found to be sufficient to secure a deal.

Signing a Contract

You should also be aware that a contract or agreement need not necessarily be signed to be enforceable. The circumstances surrounding the contract can be enough to demonstrate that something in writing has accurately set out the parties’ intentions. A signature is usually relied upon as evidence that a person has read the document and agrees to be bound by its terms, but clicking an ‘I agree‘ check box on an electronic form or web page can have the same effect.

A person who signs a contract or click a check box is generally bound by any terms it contains regardless of whether they have read the document, and legislation like the Electronic Transactions Act 1999 (Cth) allows for that.

It was commented in the explanatory memorandum that ‘An addressee who actually knows, or should reasonably know in the circumstances, of the existence of the communication should be considered to have received the communication. For example, an addressee who is aware that the communication is in their electronic mail ‘box’, but who refuses to read it should be considered to have received the communication.

Despite this rule, in some circumstances a person may still be able to withdraw a contract, start a court action to enforce it, or apply to a court to have the contract voided.

These are technical legal arguments that generally only arise at the point of dispute.

Remember, if you do find yourself in a dispute, the enforceability of an agreement or contract will depend on what law applies. For example – people buying or selling products or services online could be anywhere in the World. The law in Victoria, Australia is not the same as the law in Singapore. Different rules apply, not to mention different courts. But that is a conversation for another day.

The final word on Contracts

Contract law can be extremely complex, and there are different nuances in all legal systems. Look at the type of contracts you are entering into and consider the risks involved in doing so.

If you plan on entering into a deal that is worth more than you can afford to lose, then it is highly advisable to invest in legal assistance to ensure the point of agreement, and the terms of the agreement are clear. If the contract doesn’t make sense to you, how do you know what deal you are getting involved in?

We’re happy to assist you with a short advice, a quick review or drafting a whole new contract.

How can Onyx Legal help you?

Let us help you craft a contract that suits your business. With a written contract, you have a clear record of what is agreed rather than having to rely only on memory. Contact us to draft your agreements.

Types of Contracts

Types of Contracts

Types of Contracts

Types of Contracts in Business

Sometimes the type of contract you are looking for in business is not the type of contract you need.

Just this last week I had a client come to me with a template contract they had downloaded, and a business proposal they wanted to pursue. The problem was, the type of contract they had downloaded was a partnership agreement, and it really wasn’t suitable for what they wanted to achieve.

You see, a partnership agreement creates all sorts of interesting obligations on the people involved and is really only suitable for a long-term collaborative business and not for the development of a side hustle or project. Traditionally legal, accounting and medical practices were set up as partnerships. In a partnership, you can become personally liable to pay for the obligations of the business, even if you didn’t know they had been created. In a professional partnership, if someone takes off with client money, the other partners can be made to replace those funds, even though they did nothing wrong. Not the type of contract you want for a short-term collaboration.

For a side hustle, or collaboration to develop a digital product like an App, or a live product like a training program, or a physical product like an artificial hand, you are looking to create a joint venture. So, the type of contract your after will be different from a partnership agreement and can keep the obligations of the parties separate.

There are all sorts of different types of contracts, and downloadable template might cover what you need, but it also might not. We like to work with our clients to identify the solution they are looking for and then craft a document to fit, rather than assuming your business is just like everyone else’s.

Here are some of the variables in different types of contracts:

Written, verbal or partly written and partly verbal contracts

Contracts don’t necessarily need to be in writing to be binding. You might have created a binding contract simply through a video conference, an exchange of messages on a platform like Slack, or a combination of emails and phone calls.

The beauty of having a written contract is keeping a record of what you agreed in the first place, so that if any questions arise a year down the track, you can check back and see how you covered off that scenario.

There are definitely some contracts that do need to be in writing to be binding. A type of contract you might have come across in business is a personal guarantee. Personal guarantees do need to be in writing, and properly signed to be enforceable.

Standard form contracts

Love them or hate them, standard form contracts are designed to help make business easier for everyone, not harder. At least, they should be designed to make business easier.

As a business owner, its time consuming and unproductive to create unique contracts every time you deliver the same product or service. Standard terms give you a level of comfort so that you are clear on your obligations, and your expectations of your customer, every time you complete a similar transaction.

For customers, if standard terms are easy to understand, they know what to expect each time they deal with you. Just keep in mind that a standard form contract can still be open to negotiations. You need not lose a customer just because they don’t like your standard terms. You can be flexible, and we can help you with that.

Click-wrap contracts

You might not pay too much attention to all the ‘I agree’ check boxes you find online, but perhaps you should. Each time you check one of those boxes, you are entering into a contract, whether you read the terms or not.

There have been court decisions where people have protested that they should not be bound by terms attached to check box because they didn’t read them. The courts have, to date, been in favour of pointing out that you had the chance to read them, and if you didn’t take that chance at the time, that is your responsibility and your problem.

Click-wrap contracts are simply standard form contracts that you agree to electronically, although they are generally not negotiable. The more action you have to take to give agreement, such as not being able to agree until you have scrolled through all of the terms, can support an argument that they should be binding. 

Doing business online is a convenience for everyone, and the volume of transactions that can be processed that way, and the variety of products and services you can access online, means it’s not unreasonable for a business to suggest you agree to their contract terms, or go elsewhere.

Website Terms and Conditions

Terms and conditions on a website may or may not be binding, depending on the circumstances. If you hide them away where they are hard to find (and I have seen a retail website do this) then they are unlikely to be binding. Courts are particularly interested in whether a consumer or purchaser has had the opportunity to read them first. 

The severity of any provision in your terms and conditions will make a difference too. For example, if a website owner is attempting to say that just by browsing the information on the website without any further action, you are liable to pay $100, then that is not going to be enforceable because you haven’t had a chance to become aware of that term without first accessing the website. 

Remember too, that trying to impose new terms and conditions retrospectively is not going to work either. If something happens and you change your website terms, the updated terms will only be binding on users after the update, and not before. This is one reason to keep “last updated” dates on your website terms, and a record of historical documents.

Purpose of a Contract

The purpose of your contract is likely to influence how it is structured.

If you want something from someone, the contract will be structure to achieve that, and if someone wants something from you, the contract will be structured differently.

We had prepared a contract for a client’s business to meet their needs. They received feedback from a business consultant (not a lawyer) that they could save money and simply copy the consultant’s contract and it would be fine.

It wasn’t.

The client was good enough to send us the consultant’s contract with his feedback.

Our client wanted to employ contractors so that they could expand the area where they delivered services. Things like the protection of their intellectual property and the quality of service delivery were really important to them. We wrote the contract to fit.

The consultant’s contract was written to favour the way he delivered services to people and protected his interests, including limiting his responsibility for the services he delivered.

That was the opposite of our client’s needs.

They needed their contractors to be responsible for the services delivered, and to fix problems promptly if they arose. If they had copied the consultant’s contract, they would not have been able to demand the level of quality they needed from their contractors.

Not all Contracts are Legal

It is worth keeping in mind that not all contracts are legal. A contract that amounts to human slavery is not going to be enforceable. A bet between mates in the pub is unlikely to form a binding contract. Contracts between businesses might include terms that heavily favour the stronger party, and those terms might be open to challenge as ‘unfair contract terms’ at law.

How can Onyx Legal help you?

If you are not sure what type of contract you are looking for, book a short advice session with us so we can help you work out what you need and give you peace of mind.